Discussion on the selection of electric heating type of crude oil pipeline

Published on:

2023-02-01 13:22

Pipeline transport is the primary way crude oil is collected and distributed. For crude oil with high freezing temperature and high viscosity, the transportation process can be divided into two types: one is heated transportation, and the other is normal temperature transportation. The transportation temperature reduces its viscosity to reduce the friction loss in the pipeline. Most of the crude oil in my country has the properties of high viscosity and high freezing temperature, and the heating and transportation process is a widely used transportation process for domestic oil pipelines. There are also two less commonly used heating methods: one is to increase the flow rate of crude oil and to use the thermal energy generated by the friction of crude oil at high speed to compensate for heat losses along the way; to use electric heating with skin effect. Normal temperature transportation process refers to the use of heat treatment, chemical addition, dilution, thermal cracking and other methods to improve the low temperature fluidity of crude oil and achieve the purpose of transportation at normal temperature.

There are two aspects of energy loss when heating and transporting crude oil through pipelines: heat loss and friction loss. Since the oil flow temperature is higher than the ambient temperature around the pipeline, there is a temperature difference, so its temperature is gradually reduced during the transportation process, causing axial heat loss, the oil flow temperature drops, the viscosity rises, and the pressure drop per unit of control length gradually increases, are subject to pipeline accidents. For this reason, it is necessary to isolate and heat the oil pipeline, remove a certain amount of heat through the heat satellite, and compensate for the heat loss of the heated pipeline through direct or indirect heat exchange in order to meet the operating requirements. Heating, cooling or antifreeze.

Commonly used heating methods include steam heating and electric heating. However, due to the complexity of steam heating maintenance, the complexity of control and other problems, more and more enterprises prefer electric heating.

Electric heating is to use electric heat energy to supplement the heat lost by the heating body in the process to maintain the most reasonable process temperature of the flow medium. The oil pipeline uses electric heating to preserve heat to prevent crude oil from solidifying in the pipeline.

The electric heating system with automatic temperature control consists of a power distribution cabinet and a power distribution box. It consists of accessories such as an explosion-proof temperature controller and a terminal box, and forms a power circuit system by connecting power cables and electric heating wires. The electric heating wire attached to the surface of the oil pipeline generates heat after the power supply to achieve the purpose of heat preservation and heating.

The skin effect electric heating technology is an electric heating technique that flexibly applies the AC skin effect principle to manufacturing electric heating and removal of oil pipeline blockages. Compared with the traditional electric resistance heating for main pipelines, the skin-effect heating system does not require a large number of switchgears and is a very economical solution: more than 20 kilometers of pipelines can be traced from a single power supply point.

Many years of practice have proved that electric heating is not only suitable for various places where steam heating is used, but also allows solving problems that are difficult to solve with steam heating, such as: heating of main pipelines, heat heating of bottlenecks, equipment of irregular shape (for example, pumps), heating, Non-steam heat source or heating of pipelines and equipment in remote areas, heating of plastic and non-metal pipes, etc. D.

Regarding the selection of an electric heating cable for the crude oil transportation pipeline, the company must also consider its own characteristics and pipeline length in order to make a reasonable choice and optimize the configuration.

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